Moses’ married Tziporah and her father-in-law, Jethro (Yitro), hears of the great miracles which Hashem (G-d) performed in Egypt for the nation of Israel. He leaves Midian to the Israelite camp bringing his wife and two sons. Yitro tells Moses to appoint a council/leadership of judges and officers to help him with tasks of governing and providing justice to the nation of Israel. The children of Israel camp near Mount Sinai (Har Sinai) and they are told that Hashem has chosen them to be His “Kingdom of Priests and “Holy Nation.”
The entire nation of Israel assembles at the foot of Mount Sinai for the Giving of the 2 Luchot (Tablets – 10 Commandments). Hashem descends on the mountain while thunder, lightning, with smoke flowing from the mountain, sounds of the shofar, and summons Moses to ascend to the mountain top. Hashem gives Moses the Ten Commandments, commanding the people of Israel to believe in the Hashem and not to worship idols or use Hashem’s name in vain, to keep the Shabbath, honor their parents, not to murder, not to commit adultery, not to steal, and to bear false witness. The people cry out to Moses saying these laws are too intense and beg him to receive the Torah from Hashem and interpret it to them.